- Cutting Tools
- Measuring Tools
- Machine Accessories
- Hand Tools
- Works Equipments
Has your company been reorganized twice in the past three years?
Do you call CAD/cam cad/can?
Will you use the equal opportunity robot?
Did you build a special waiting room for those factories? of-the-
Will the salesman of the future come to your company?
If you can answer any of the two questions you may know is yes (Maybe painful.
In manufacturing technology, a rapid revolution is or is about to affect the way your company operates.
The main driving force of this revolution is the computer.
Integrated manufacturing (CIM)--
The cornerstone of the future factory.
EdwardJ Adlard, head of manufacturing software systems at Metcut research, said, \"future factories are developing by linking and sharing data between Currently available systems, such as computers --aided design (CAD), computer-
Auxiliary manufacturing (CAM),computer-
Auxiliary process planning (CAPP)
, Distributed valuescontrol(DNC)
Manufacturing system (FMS)
And so on, this is exactly the purpose of CIM--
Communication and methods combining existing technologies.
\"In the next 50 years, CIM will be the rule for US factories, not the exception.
The distributed computer network supported by feedback will turn off the design and manufacturing cycle and provide
Then all the initials, acronym.
The technology of marking will give up their respective identities and merge them into an awesome product development Hydra.
\"The return will be in the store,\" Adlard insisted . \".
\"It is estimated that CIM has the potential to improve machine utilization and reduce work --in-
Processing inventory is equal to the cost of building and equipping another complete plant.
\"Don\'t expect the future factory to be outside a drumthe-
The factory with fully integrated shelves is not available today and may never be available.
It will be up to you to obtain, implement and integrate the necessary hardware, software and equipment.
\"After visiting hundreds of factories and checking the product line of all major factories --
\"The fact that automation vendors, a fact becomes clear: Unlike offices, offices are a relatively unified environment for all industries, and there are no general-purpose factories,\" says Glen Allmendinger . \" Director of plant systems research at Yankee Group, a technology research company.
\"So every system proposal has to be personalized, making the potential to develop an integrated solution more complex.
\"This complexity makesthe-
He continued: \"It\'s unrealistic to put the solution on hold . \"
\"Few integration experts have a record of installing factory systems, and the number is smaller when this is broken by specific industries and applications (e. g.
, A team with experience in a car factory may not be of much help to an aerospace or electronics factory).
\"Allmendinger suggests that there are several areas that must be addressed if you consider fully integrating automation and information systems in the plant.
* Data Communication is required to distribute design, engineering and production data on large computer and factory networks
And must have the ability to communicate outside the manufacturing computer environment, providing users with ways to connect business areas of different functions.
* Manufacturing systems and application software are required as the basis for a fully integrated system and interactive manufacturing environment.
* A Manufacturing database is required for the storage, retrieval, operation and management of large quantities of engineering and production data.
\"The ultimate benefit of CIM for future plants is to build an integrated manufacturing database within the company,\" commented Adlard of Metcut . \".
\"This database will be shaped by parts and tools, machines-
Material Data, part/operation data, and machining data.
In the long run, the database will help collect, store, flow and revise all the information needed to plan, organize and control manufacturing.
This includes not only the original production data, but also the economic data needed for job tracking and cost analysis.
Edge CAD/CAM systems have demonstrated their value in creating, maintaining and transmitting this information. Built in 32-
Computers and specialized graphics software, these systems create a large number of multi-functional databases.
Over the next 50 years, information about each stage of product development and engineering will reside in the database, which will regularly issue orders to the robots and various automated processes in the plant workshop.
2034 Lan, most factories will contain a series of computers
Basic subsystems such as CAD, CNC, robot, material
Processing System, etc.
In order to fully integrate these subsystems and make significant progress in efficiency, flexibility and productivity, these automated silos must be linked through communication media.
In the workshop, this communication system is called a local area network (LAN)
, Will allow automation to respond quickly to sudden changes in process conditions (e. g.
Overload or equipment failure).
Until recently, most local area networks were designed specifically for office environments. -
For example, Xerox\'s Ethernet, ARCNET of Datapoint and wangnet.
But now, some factories
Directional networks have been announced: MODWAY of GEnet, Gould modcon, DataNet of Concord Data System and Interactive System/3 m * Western Digital * Allen-
Bradley communications network, just a few examples.
These networks are not like the target networks of the office.
First of all, the application environment is completely different.
Unlike offices, manufacturing workplaces are often harsh.
This will also reduce the quality of data communication.
\"These requirements make factory communication users pay more attention to performance than Office users (
Very cost conscious office LAN market)
, \"Comments allmendinger of Yankee Group.
\"In the factory, the manager planning to install the network will have to give up many cost considerations and pay for reliability, data integrity and guaranteed access times. e.
, The longest time to deliver a message on the network.
This is the beginning of the token --based (deterministic)
By the way, systems on CSMA/CD systems are criticized for problems arising from propagation delays and random access algorithms.
\"Like most emerging technologies, the pursuit of standards is a problem with LAN standards.
All competing suppliers have developed an owner communication system.
However, the actual acceptance of any standard will not occur for at least five years.
Traditionally, standards have evolved in one of three ways: suppliers dominate the market and set de facto standards (e. g. ,IBM\'s SNA)
The government has set a standard (e. g.
Through the National Bureau of Standards)
, Or a standard consisting of a committee (e. g. , IEEE 802).
Allmendinger believes that factory communication standards will shape themselves in different ways.
For example, as a large user of Automation (
Now tilt as a robot supplier through GMF)
General Motors has created its Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP)
Set up the task force of the company\'s standard agreement for local communication between plant ground systems.
Therefore, the de facto standard can be set by the dominant automatic user.
\"That\'s why IBM is interested in GM maps ---
They realized that their presence in management information systems was the eighth among manufacturing veterans . \"
\"So Big Blue is much more curved than they think about in the traditional market.
\"Large users of automation may follow GM\'s steps to solve communication problems on their own.
To answer this question, we are currently conducting a survey of the largest automated users.
Allmendinger continued: \"When the normalization is finalized, the entire production process will be coordinated and integrated from the product design, the workshop applications manufactured, and the assembled applications.
He noted that \"ANSI is trying to coordinate various standard activities in the field of industrial automation and is currently identifying all existing standards and projects related to the development of standards in this field.
This effort is a glimmer of hope.
However, if the standard is to take effect in time to prevent further decline in manufacturing productivity, automation users will have to be furious (like GM)
Forcing suppliers to create a flexible atmosphere.
\"Interest in software standards is also growing.
It is essential to provide a variety of users with natural capabilities.
IBM\'s introduction to AML to APT (
Combined Company vs XT-
370 PC workstation)
, Illustrates the rigor of the power to move forward in normalization.
This makes AML the next industry standard for machine language.
Dr. Samuel Colin was elected chairman of the RIA standards committee from IBM, which ensures that IBM will play an important role in this area.
Computers, communication systems and data
Base management is the pillar of future factories.
Many industrial enterprises believe that they have only five years to fully integrate the entire production process.
If they miss the ship, they are likely to lose their strategic competitive edge in their industry.
Flexible manufacturing is a loosely defined concept organized around CIM goals.
However, Dr. Suren B Rao, product development director, Lear Siegler Inc. National knife and machinery department, I think \"the only way for the US to restore manufacturing leadership is to implement integrated flexible factories in the future.
Of course, the degree of implementation depends on whether we have a national commitment.
Only by making full use of the existing computer technology can we make great achievements.
\"The concept of FMS (
Flexible manufacturing system
Is the last stage of minimizing human intervention in a machine.
Tool operation, and certainly the main Discrete-
Part manufacturing strategy for the next 50 years.
The final fms includes the DNCs layer (
Distributed numerical control
And subordinates (
Computer numerical control)
, Plus related robots, materials
Handling and packaging system-
All of this is controlled in the subsystem of the main factory computer.
However, the key is NC (
Digital control). A machine-
Tools have just evolved in
Research on prediction from Clevelandbasedbusiness-
Dr. john Brecklingforecasts, a senior research expert at intelligence, predicts that by 1995, nearly 40% of new machine tools will be designated as NC.
The development of numerical control technology paved the way for the wide application of numerical control technology.
\"The NC principle is to get a higher level of application in DNC by connecting the CNC machine tool network with the main computer,\" Dr. Breckling said . \".
\"Just like the function of each CNC control itsmachine, the master computer integrates the performance of the entire network.
The status of each subsystem is communicated to the host or host.
Then, it responds to the problems in the network according to the desired results, not only for individual metal processing functions, but also for the whole process.
He continued: \"This approach reduces the mutual dependence of machines in the integrated system, because the master computer can compensate for the failure of a single machine by reallocating the workflow.
DNC and more
The concept of station transfer laid the foundation for the factory
Wide integration--enter the FMS.
\"What are the features of the future that we can expect?
Progress of adaptive control and adaptive control
Processing will continue to expand the use of the second and third classes of unprocessed FMS.
This ability not only saves labor costs, but also saves light and heat costs for these shifts. Self-
However, a diagnostic system that stops production when a fault occurs is essential for this operation. Self-
The fix feature is preferable, although this feature was not expected until the end of the decade.
\"Some of the functions of FMS will go into other manufacturing processes to improve efficiency and flexibility,\" commented Cliffoed D Young, an FMS expert at ofArthur D Little, a consulting firm.
For example, through the integration of tools, the production line will soon develop to FMS
Replacement equipment, parts-
Processing equipment and advanced computer control.
\"Software is also a crucial factor.
Improvements began in two areas.
First, simulation technology is being accepted as part of the system design and specification program.
Second, some FMS suppliers, especially Comau and white-
Sundstrand is actively developing modular or standard software packages. \" Who has them? Who needs them?
FMSs is used for batch manufacturing, for the production line and other special processes, there are too many kinds of work pieces and the output is too low;
At the same time, however, the volume is too high
Separate machine tools.
Although this represents 35 percent of today\'s manufacturing base in the United States, FMSs has just begun to implement.
According to Young, \"Caterpillar tractors are the biggest buyers of FMSs and have spent $0. 135 billion so far.
AVCO, John Deere and General Electric are also on the first level.
Kearney & Trecker, a leading supplier, said there were 1000 potential customers in the country alone.
If everyone buys only four to five systems, it will be 50 times as optimistic as the installation base.
\"So, what is the holding rate?
The long lead time and the weak world economy are more related to the lack of facilities than lack of interest.
Nevertheless, where technology is used, the results are amazing, and use will grow as these experiences are more widely known.
\"Richard P Cottrell, vice president of Newcor Inc. Machine Tool Group, has different views on why the industry is slow to implement this technology.
\"I think part of the reason is the standard machine --
The tool builder first developed the concept and built all the early systems.
Success of standards
The machine business relies on the mass production of some basic designs, so the early FMSs was manufactured by companies that primarily sought to increase the existing machine market.
\"Who is the customer?
The company that produces large parts has a large number of businesses in a low to medium quantity-
Mainly buildings and farms.
Why did they buy it?
Because the parts they produce are perfect for standard machining centers and because they are familiar with NC, they are one of the first to adopt NC.
\"But,\" he continued, \"the standard processing center is an inefficient way of production,
Because only one espindle is cut at a time, the volume assembly. Further, high-
Volume manufacturers do not have much experience in NC.
In fact, many people just deliver goods on their first CNC machine.
Therefore, the existing FMSs is not suitable for high demand
I think they have avoided mass production.
Cottrell gave an example of a major car manufacturer who recently asked for advice on the construction of various power systems for fMS
Training parts with 15 to 20 parts/hour productivity.
The tool builder submitted a quote on the system.
The automakers then brought them a curve by adding a new part that raised all production requirements to 100 parts/hour.
The builder realized by simply adding more machining centers, which blew the cost of the project into orbit.
He suggested a better way.
\"The concept of FMS requires a special dose of health
I mean being able to process parts from scratch and develop innovative Machine and Tool solutions to minimize the equipment needed. Transfer-
The robot is used to combining many operations on one machine, thus reducing the required number.
When this philosophy is applied to FMSs, it can also reduce the time spent moving parts from one machine to another and replacing tools.
This is the necessary condition to make FMS highly profitable.
Producer of quantity.
\"We recently developed a concept for FMS to produce five different parts in a series --and two-
He pointed out that this is an example of his point of view.
\"The system uses 28 machining centers designed on modular buildings --
Therefore, only the necessary capabilities are provided.
In addition, many machines are eliminated by innovative thinking.
An example is the level of water and the vertical index fixture.
This allows for hole expansion operations vertically, which eliminates tool dents and horizontal rough drilling of the entire workstation. \"Special-
\"Machine thinking will greatly increase the application scope of FMSs and increase productivity and/or reduce costs in future applications,\" says Cottrell . \".
\"But if this particular FMSs is really going to take off, there are two other scams that need to be changed.
First of all, most potential buyers follow traditional machines
The tool purchase practice that expects the conceptual work to be completed on an aspect basis.
This is good for traditional FMSs that involve a small amount of creative thinking, but when applied to the new FMSs, it is suffocating because the system concept is a considerable cost (
Although it still accounts for only about 1% of the total cost).
Second, we must break the current capital. dudgeting mind-set.
Of course, the cost of FMS is higher, but in a few years you will save a lot of money when making engineering changes.
Ten years later, you will save more when the new product comes out.
\"Considering the advantages of systems that can maximize the use of machines --
Operating time to minimize failures and reduce labor costs-
And further advantages of systems that integrate planning, production and accounting functions ---
In principle, the only obstacle to FMSs\'s growth is this kind of thinking --
The initial cost is high, which may not be a problem in the near future.
\"We\'re used to the $15 to $20 million figure (andup)
\"Every system, but this is changing,\" says D little \'syoung.
\"For example, consider the FMSs installed in Europe by Citroen and Volvo, each selling for between $4 and $6 million.
If these cheaper systems can prove significant manufacturing advantages, then FMSs will be open for more companies in the future.
Dr. breklin added, \"most industry analysts predict revolutionary growth, and some expect that half of the CNC machine tools produced will be installed on inms in the next decade.
No doubt, flexible
For the rest of this century, manufacturing technology will have a significant impact on the metal processing industry.
Flexible manufacturing system is a hot topic.
Their potential in reducing inventory, streamlining conversion and improving operational efficiency is key to the re-acquisition of the status of the world\'s leading industrial nation in the United States.
Unfortunately, there is a general lack of knowledge of FMS expectations and, more importantly, what commitment must be made to ensure success.
We asked former Vice President George Lasker. Cell-
OManufacturing Systems Co, for some general guidelines that lack experience and error information, these guidelines should be followed in assessing the potential of FMS.
He told us: * do homework.
Analyze your portfolio, volume, and product stability.
If you make oneof-a-
FMSs may not be suitable for you for similar products or a large number of the same products.
Builders can help make decisions, but the basic assessment must be done by your own people.
Also, getting your product \"house\" in order is an opportunity to sort out the edge products while putting the rest into groups or families.
By the way, this is a key step in the study and is critical to making informed decisions. * Make an up-
Early in the feasibility study, hire or train managers with strong technical skills.
They should be familiar with the elements and functions of FMSs, especially in the field of computers and software.
These people can form an assessment/demonstration team and eventually become your system manager, thus speeding up implementation and training other employees at the beginningup.
* Evaluate builder.
Find and work with companies with financial and technical advantages to help you get your project started and other work done.
Looking for turnkey capability for machinery and all aspects
Nothing is more disappointing than playing a referee between vendors, as no one will accept responsibility for the performance of the entire system. * Be prepared.
Once the purchase of FMS is promised, the user must be prepared to stick to it in the next collaboration.
You must provide enough technical and management personnel to ensure the long termtermsuccess.
The system is relatively complex, which means
Training of software, electronics and mechanical maintenance personnel must be prepared.
A high level of discipline must be established in terms of tool setup and distribution, and the person responsible for these activities must be supported by a dedicated and progressive management team. * Start small.
Flexible manufacturing may be new to your company, so start with a unit of one or two machines, an automatic material --
Treatment Device (Such as robots)
There may be aging machines.
Make sure the controls and software in the phone can be integrated into more complex systems later.
When you gain confidence and technical capabilities, your ability to evaluate and designate future systems will become more professional and the likelihood of failure will decrease rapidly. * Be patient.
No matter how good the idea and design of FMSis is, its complexity needs to start
Time and Learning curves are much longer than standingalone machines.
Nevertheless, the increased flexibility, higher productivity and reduced inventory it provides will significantly offset the initial inconvenience.
* Keep it simple.
If this is the first experience of using a dedicated machining system, robot or electronic detection, do not increase the load to an unnecessary level of complexity.
Adaptive control, machine vision, laser detection, automatic Storage/Retrieval and more are powerful tools, but they require expertise in programming, maintenance, and operator knowledge to operate effectively. A well-
The planning system will allow these devices to be connected at a later date-
When you\'re ready* Get involved.
Whether it is now or in the future, the success of FMS is a company --
This depends to a large extent on the obvious promotion and support of senior management.
There is nothing faster than an indifferent boss to guarantee failure.
Ensure that the technical manager is involved in the builder and plays an active role in the system specification and design.
A progressive builder invites this kind of communication.
This is a way to avoid surprise delivery day, avoid and unwanted early retirement.
Industrial robots: in addition to computer automation workaholics, industrial robots promise to make a huge contribution to the manufacturing industry in the next 50 years.
In fact, the increase in material costs, increased competition at home and abroad, and the lack of skilled workers have made productivity and costs higher and higher, automation through robots is a necessary condition for enterprises to survive even at the end of this century.
Tran Corp-Industrial Technology-
Market research estimates that the annual US unit sales of these devices will increase from about 1700 units in 1992 to nearly 38,000 units, with a total of 134,000 robots installed by the end of that year.
If this number is reached, by 1992, robots should use about 5-10 percentages in all manufacturing applications that fit them.
Technology Trend Micro Tran further predicts that by 1992, the price of robots will drop to about half the current level ($1983).
This reduction may be accompanied by the following technological developments, thus providing a greater return on the capital of potential users --equipment buck.
* Robots with smaller weight and lower weight-
Lighter materials and more advanced designs will allow the development of smaller robots.
Plastic and composite materials will be used more and more.
* Stronger robots-
As the volume of robots becomes smaller, their relative payload capacity and weight ratio will also increase.
New materials and designs will allow for greater carrying capacity.
* Flexible clamp--
The current effort is likely to be to develop
Flexible end actuator for purpose will result in an unavailable endof-
Arm tools for various applications.
* Visual sensing--
Machine vision is expected to account for 25-50% of all robots by 1992.
* Tactile sensing--
Resolution compliance array-
Type tactile sensors will also be provided at that time.
In the next five years, Tactilesensing may play a more important role than machine vision.
* Improved control--Robot-
In the next 10 years, control technology will make progress in several areas.
For example, hierarchical control of the standard;
Electronic control will also be widely used.
About 50% of robots will be equipped with micro-computers, and simple robots will use programmable controllers;
By 1992, robots of about 1 out of 3 will achieve adaptive control;
Multiple processing and control of multiple robots will become a common phenomenon.
* Programming improvements--
A standard robot programming language, perhaps derived from the graphic language, will be used in the early 90 s.
Other expected developments include:
Line programming of up to 25 points in all robots (
The initial application should appear between 1986 and 1987);
Programming with self
Diagnostic ability; and more user-
* Voice driver--
By 1992, robots are likely to recognize and act on simple voice commands.
This is very useful in checking operations.
* Artificial intelligence (AI)--
There is already a basic form of artificial intelligence in the visual system.
1992, advanced decision-making-
Providing and feedback features, while not in line with uman\'s judgement, will allow for greater flexibility in applications such as assembly.
Eric Mittelstadt, president of GMF Robotics, agrees with these projections and adds, \"the technology trend for suppliers over the next 50 years will be to diversify into areas such as software and artificial intelligence.
Obviously, with the development of programming, machine vision and other sensory software, the application of robots will grow.
The robot is expected to move faster, more accurately and with better repeatability.
They will use the real
Their sensor systems move time to complex inputs, which will make it work on object-oriented parts.
Robots will gain greater mobility, making applications almost limitless.
He continued: \"Robots will not be limited to orbit as they are today, but will move randomly in manufacturing environments in response to input from their sensing systems.
Mobility is only an extension of technology, which already exists in primary form.
However, its widespread use depends on when it will be cost effective.
This capability has great potential, especially in assembly applications.
\"Timothy J. Bubrick, manager of automation engineering at TheDeVilbiss Co, believes that in the next 20 years,\" robots used to complete applications will be improved in at least two major areas.
The first is to continue to develop low-
Cost robots with sufficient capacity, reliability and ease of programming can achieve less complex finishing operations.
In addition, these robots will have the flexibility to upgrade if needed.
\"The second area involves highTechnology paint shop
With CAD/CAM programming, the path of the finishing robot and all the finishing parameters will be constantly monitored and adjusted.
Parameters may include temperature, humidity, viscosity, and flow rate.
For example, if the temperature changes, the system will automatically change the paint viscosity and flow rate for a consistent finish.
\"It is expected that up to 30% of robots will be connected to CAD/CAM systems by 1992.
Bublick concluded by saying, \"the unit with one or two painting-able arms will be equipped with a visual sensor that can instantly modify the programming path to compensate for the incorrect part suspension direction and detect the applicable film thickness.
The controller will be equipped with diagnostic equipment to detect faults-
Drive them away even before they happen.
It\'s also OK to imagine a robot drawing in a body shop or outside --
\"In general, the shift in applications is expected to move towards a broader base of robotic applications.
In the near future, the leading applications will be material handling, machine loading and assembly. (
Note: Spot welding, which has now become an established application, will increase the number, but the percentage of the total number of robots in use will decrease ---
Reference diagram. )
Mittelstadt of GMF said: \"In the next five years, machine loading and unloading and material handling will continue to dominate the application of industrial robots. However, the surge in assembly equipment will mark the next complete
\"In order to adapt to the increasing use of robots in assembly applications, Tech Tran is expected to require product designers to design products for robot handling.
For example, parts need to become more symmetrical in order to be easy to grab.
Prominent materials may be added on some parts to provide a reference point.
In addition, the use of visual systems is increasing, which requires the design of key dimensions around easily identifiable features.
It is also necessary to organize parts on the assembly line in order.
Finally, the working material needs to be able to resist damage to the end actuator.
Machine vision is a new term in image analysis Science--
The technology can be traced back at least 50 years ago, but its most important agreement will be the manufacturing process in the future.
According to Dr. Stanley R. Stenberg, president of Machine Vision International, and associate professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of Michigan, \"most of the history of image analysis is in the field of materials science, I. e.
Observe the microstructure of metal or composite fibers.
It is not used to find separate parts or paint surfaces. The reason?
Image analysis is time consuming and expensive.
George gaggliadi of Arthur D. litter commented: \"The old system needs what I call a clean image because the machine will be confused by chemical light and shadows.
However, the latest generation of visual systems is much more tolerant of typical \"noise\" scenarios in the manufacturing environment.
\"The reason for the improvement is how the picture elements are handled,\" he continued . \".
Until recently, the most important thing is
The processing system is designed to process one pixel at a time.
Even with a relatively fast microprocessor, the speed is very slow.
The latest visual systems connect many microprocessor together so that they can handle continuous image elements.
This greatly speeds up processing.
To further accelerate image analysis, some systems even run many of these chains in parallel.
Dr. Sternberg added that, like most other electronic devices, advances in technology are accompanied by lower costs.
\"Now the cost of image analysis is low enough, so check for a single item scan.
Today, of course, there is a surge in requirements for inspection items due to government regulations, more complex components and more stringent tolerances.
Don\'t expect this change to happen in the future.
Machine foresight application
The visual system is considered to be a sensing device for various forms of flexible manufacturing hardware (such as robots), and 10 per cent of the parts produced in large quantities are detected.
If the workpiece is extremely complex, such as the workpiece produced by the automobile or aerospace industry, small batch inspection is another field of application.
According to Tech Tran, in a recent industry analysis, \"as the number of visual systems increases, there will be a proliferation in the types of systems and applications that use them.
Robot control technology will have more applications, and the percentage of systems used for this purpose will increase from about 4% in 1982 to about 22 to 30% in 1992.
While the number of visual systems used to detect applications has increased significantly, it should be reduced from about 2 out of 3 systems used today to about 40% to 92 years.
Gagliardi of D Little said, \"it is possible that the visual system will be used in the next five yearsProcess measurement (both 2-Dand 3-D)
Tool guidance and process control--
A little closed-
Visual as a circular method of feedback.
In addition, thermal analysis (using infrared)
This is unreasonable when the cutter is buried in the cut.
Machine vision may be used to reduce the amount of fixtures required for machining, especially the parts scheduled through FMS.
\"Image analysis technology will definitely be applied to the control system,\" Dr. Sternberg added . \"
For the next 15 to 20 years, the technology will be applied to collect data and then use it to control the FET, E. G. g.
Welding gun on robot arm and other equipment.
He pointed out, \"image analysis has been passive so far.
In the future, the visual system will focus on welding guns, workpieces, welds and robots ---
Control of the whole process.
Today\'s programmable automation has entered a closedloop machine-vision system.
Dr. Sternberg is looking forward to 20 to 50 years.
Sensor, become a new generation of adaptive control system.
By 2034, these systems will be the foundation of all intelligent manufacturing systems.
\"In the next 20 years,\" henotes, \"software will be a growing part of the development effort.
In the end, the complexity of the software is so great that you can\'t add more functionality to it.
In fact, modifications can reduce performance by adding errors.
Humans cannot test these systems because they will go through so many paths, branches, and loops that they cannot analyze what they are doing.
\"This generation of adaptive controls does not require us to understand the internal workings of software or even systems.
The only thing that needs to be monitored is performance.
Using image analysis, this generation of adaptive control will learn by observing, analyzing, and as part of the application.
The system will then generate its own software to optimize the execution of tasks.
Dr. Sternberg concluded, \"The vision will be the basis for achieving a strong closure --
Loop adaptive control for future factories.
This is the only thing that can gather information about the entire working environment.
The application of this technology will be very common in the automotive industry, especially in FMSs and fixed assembly of products such as car body.
\"Tool and Tool issues\" in cutting\"
In the tool industry, we are using computer technology to bring together what we have done manually over the years, \"said Gene Sanders of GE\'s CarboloySystems division.
\"An example is to put application information into a program that ultimately allows the user to call the appropriate cutting speed or material recommendation.
This will help compensate for the expected storage of tool engineers in future plants and help minimize service costs.
\"The user may be able to call the distributor, enter certain information and then get advice, otherwise an experienced technician will be required to make a service call.
Cutting activities in the future
The tool industry will naturally be most affected by the development of working materials.
Thirty years ago, there was a saying in this profession --tool-
The material business with truenow may be real in the future.
Today\'s tool material will be the structural material for tomorrow.
An example is high temperature alloy, it is high
Speed Steel developed to increase production
Resistance to temperature creep.
Sanders pointed out that \"Ben ashft has recently reached a high point in the oil market --
Carbon steel temperature alloy produced by tool joints and other lower manufacturers
This is due to the increasing drilling activity of \"our gas\", which tends to erode traditional materials.
To be sure, with the use of more of this type of working material, the use of cutting will increase --
Tools such as ceramics, Diamond, Cubic boron and nitrogen (CBN).
\"Tenacious tool GE is the first company to announce the successful replication of Diamond and CBN manufacturing in the laboratory, and the first company to manufacture these ultra-abrasive materials on a commercial scale.
We asked E. LouisKapernaros, general manager of GE\'s special materials department, if he thought that any materials superior to diamonds and CBN would be developed in the next 50 years?
\"I doubt that,\" he said . \"
\"When we first made diamonds in the GE research lab, it was a newly developed highpressure, high-
Temperature technology is used to make other materials that, in theory, are superior in performance to diamonds.
No other useful materials were found except for the CBN.
Because CBN is more resistant to chemical attacks of some metals at high temperatures than diamonds, it is even more powerful than diamonds for some applications.
\"However, both tool materials are expected to increase productivity, especially in cases where working materials are difficult to grind or difficult to cut.
The same is true of many materials used in 2034.
\"Some of today\'s traditional engineering materials will disappear for a long time by the end of this century,\" Kapernaros stressed . \".
\"The automobile industry will make high
Interior of Aqua cegasturbine
Internal combustion engine mainly made of Advanced Ceramics-
Including sic, Silicon nitrogen, etc.
The materials are very hard and rough.
Traditional tool materials cannot be ground or cut effectively.
Keith McKee, engineering manager at addscarboyy said: \"I believe we will see a significant increase in the use of ceramics as structural materials, which determines the removal technology of new materials, possibly some branches of grinding
\"In some cases, these parts will be produced by injection molding to close-
Thus avoiding problems related to processing.
However, usually at any time, as long as there is a matching part, the surface must be identified by cutting the metal.
The real challenge will be how to do this effectively.
\"It is also important,\" he continued, \"to produce parts with mesh or proximity mesh using traditional materialsnetshapes.
\"This trend will affect metal processing in several ways.
First of all, there will be great opportunities to save on raw materials.
Secondly, most obviously, the processing is much less than from solid materials or parts that require several stages of processing.
Finally, in order to meet the surface requirements, only processing may be required
Complete the requirements.
We will discuss it later
Pressure formation technology is expected to be in the energy network and near
Net shape for the next 50 years.
McKee Kapernaros agreed to the future of the conventionalwork piece material.
\"Steel and cast iron are still one of the most cost-effective and versatile engineering materials.
Of course, the improved steel alloy and better cast iron grades will become higher and higher from now until 2034.
These will improve performance and make it harder to grind and cut.
They must be grinded with a CBN wheel or cut with a tool made of multi-Crystal CBNblanks.
McKee believes that composite materials will also be widely used.
The question is, is there a diamond and CBN product that can grind and cut these advanced materials?
\"The Super grinding products today will do very well.
But that\'s not to say they can\'t improve.
One advantage of the ultra-abrasive products manufactured is that under specific production conditions they can be designed to give the best results under specific working materials.
\"By changing the parameters used to make diamonds and CBN, you can make crystals that are closely controlled in size, shape and toughness.
Performance can also be improved by surface treatment and coating.
He pointed out that \"in the manufacturing process of these two products, you can control the size of the grain ---
Create a mold blank with a finer granular structure to get a finer stretch-
Wire finish, for example.
When the industry needs better performance, it is possible to quickly develop better ultra-abrasive products.
\"Machine tools impact some automotive companies are conducting tests to optimize the geometry of tools made of CBN and polycrystal diamonds and to establish optimal processing conditions.
This data will be used to design next generation cutters and machine tools-
Pioneers of things that will be used in 2034.
Kapernaros said: \"In many cases, the grinding operation will replace the processing operation of advanced black metal parts.
The ability of CBN to withstand large rough machining (
Evenly sliced by thick heat-treating scale)
Make it attractive for this purpose.
\"Does this mean metal cutting operations ---
Turn milling, etc--
Will it be technically outdated?
Kapernaros suggested: \"Not necessarily . \"
\"The user will choose between grinding and cutting operations ---
Cubic ceramic or cubic ceramic cutter.
They will choose the best process for a particular application in their mind.
Users can also choose to process and grind parts in hardened or soft conditions.
\"In fact, all the metal cutting machines today are designed with carbide cutters.
Some of these machines can make the most of the cbn.
However, in general they do not have rigidity, horsepower, high speed wheel speed and high grinding
The fluid capacity required to extract the full production potential from the tool.
Fortunately, the predecessor of a new generation of machines designed to tap into this production potential began to emerge.
The production efficiency of these machines is usually three to five times that of traditional machines.
The next generation of machine tools designed to make the most of the production capacity of these tools will perform better.
The production grinder may use the CBN wheel in one setting to perform all operations from rough machining to finishing ---
The same wheels are very likely.
Future improvements in metal processing productivity will not depend solely on tools or machines
Tool enhancements, however.
\"One thing that will be of great help to the future of metal processing,\" suggested Sanders of SkaraB boroy, \"is a more stringent quality standard for processed materials.
Today, you often find a variety of hardness from lot tolot. If the metal-
Improvement of production industry
The consistency of the material, it will certainly improve the predictability of processing.
Carboloy\'s McKee believes that \"due to the economic necessity of using near-cut, future processing will be carried out at very light cutting depthnet-shape parts.
Nevertheless, these operations can still be carried out at a fairly high feed rate due to production requirements.
\"At a given feed rate, the head of the cutting tool is under greater pressure as the cutting depth decreases.
This means that the tool material must be stronger to withstand mechanical stress.
\"Due to the trend of unmachining, the consistency of tool materials will also increase.
\"I expect the size of the insert to be much smaller, too,\" he said . \".
\"Today, users typically consume only about 1% of the tool material and throw away the remaining 99 per cent.
With the development of the metal processing industry to a more advanced direction (
They will also find ways to use small plugins.
\"In addition, McKee believes that tools in future factories do not have to be of size.
Today, we do a lot of diamond grinding to adjust the size of the tool to meet the polishing requirements
In the future, the size properties of the tool, relative to its position on the machine tool, will be done using sensors.
Regardless of the shape of the tool, these devices will be accurately positioned within a certain range.
Therefore, there is little need for precision grinding plug-ins except for the tool surface
Complete the requirements.
\"The sensors will also be used to fully check the parts to see when the tool is worn out too much and when it should be replaced,\" said remarksSanders.
So, automatic size
Control and tools
After 50 years, it will certainly be more common to place equipment.
In fact, it will be faster than this.
\"Both McKee and Sanders have predicted that the automatic tool system for flexible machining will eventually change some of the tool holders that have been purchased to emphasize and stay away from the tool materials in some ways.
This is because the tool holder will play an increasingly important role in the system and account for a large part of the cost of the tool.
Also, a copy of each tool is required-
One in a machine, one in a storage magazine, and one in a tool bed.
In addition, unless very complex measurement and positioning techniques are used, future users may be too cautious when running tool I. e.
, It may be replaced more frequently than today\'s operations.
This may lead to less desirable use, but will provide more uptime for the machine.
\"With more automation,
Production line inspection and tools
\"Size compensation,\" McKee concluded, \"you may see a tool that keeps the system developed that allows the insertion to be indexed without removing the tool from the machine
This will circumvent part of the cost of tool replacement and storage systems.
This is an idea that has been around for a long time, but since other links in the automation chain are missing, it has never really been integrated together.
Still, it\'s an idea who\'s time to come.
\"In the future, productivity will be formed under pressure. we expect most metal processing companies to seriously explore
The process of pressure formation as a productive economic force
Shape, or at least close-net-
Shape the parts in the next few years.
In fact, this seems to make high
By 2034, pressure technology was the preferred method of forming.
Jerry Pfeffer from ASEA pressure systems helped many domestic companies successfully apply high
The process of pressure formation.
We asked him about the benefits of this technology. \"Inhigh-
He said: \"The pressure forming of the plate, you can usually form complex parts in one or two operations, rather than the five or six required when the same parts are formed through conventional methods.
In addition, you can create parts using clearer radius, depth drawing, and better definition.
\"Of course, productivity has improved with the reduction of forming operations.
Reduced tool costs.
Pfeffer stressed, \"the biggest possible benefit is that high-rise can be used in materials that are extremely difficult to form using traditional processes-
This means that for designers who are always under pressure to improve their terminals, a wider selection of materials
\"Use another high
During the pressure process, the steel plate up to 12 \"thick can be formed in various shapes without preheating the material, thus saving energy. Computer in-
The process measurement and control system can accurately manipulate the shape, improve the quality and eliminate the need for rework.
\"Pfeffer pointed out that the other high
The pressure process is called water pressure extrusion, which is at least 100 times faster than conventional extrusion, while being able to produce complex cross-sections.
Finally, heat equilibrium compaction of powder-
One of the many successful applications of hot waiting machines (HIP)--
Near-productionnet-shape and net-
Shape the parts with dense, uniform microstructure from actual and metal or ceramic materials or combinations of these materials.
HIP can also be used to repair defects in castings, for worn composite parts
Solid and solid materialsstate welding.
One forming sheet and sheet, all the high mentioned just now
The process of stress is considered exotic and even futuristic.
However, they all prove practical and economical in reality.
World production applications.
More importantly, all of these processes have potential for growth. -
Respond to the inherent capacity of engineering materials to be used in 2034.
Let\'s talk about sheet metal, for example.
According to the steps of material development, it is reasonable to develop three to four generations of new sheet metal in the next 50 years.
Each will have attributes that are better than the previous generations. -
Strength, fatigue resistance, corrosion resistance, heat resistance and other properties. Today\'s high-pressure sheet-
Metal Forming Technology will make it possible to efficiently form these new materials.
Pfeffer pointed out, \"bigger --sized sheet-
Metal parts may need by the end of this century, and today
The pressure formation process can be expanded as needed. Very largehigh-pressure sheet-
The efficiency of the metal forming press should be as high as today\'s small press.
\"I expect product designers to develop high levels using new materials
Metal parts for demanding structural applications.
Complex configurations may be required and parts must have the final accuracy required for easy installationup. Today\'s high-pressuresheet-
The metal forming process already has the necessary capabilities.
\"We asked Pfeffer aobut his high expectations-
Pressure formation of large plates.
He said, \"like in the case of sheet metal, I want to be stronger and more difficult --to-
Form the sheet to be developed.
There should be any problem forming the high quality of these materialspressureplate-
\"Most of today\'s applications are high.
Including a cylindrical pressure plate--large-
Diameter pipes for power plants for offshore oil
Drilling platforms and walls for pressure vessels.
This process can also form cones, hemisphere, channel parts and parts that require composite curvature.
As design engineers become aware of these capabilities, we expect the number of high-tech applications to increase.
Press plate forming growth.
New applications include building ship boards for submarines and icebreakers, as well as building very large turbine blades for hydro plants.
Please note that components produced today as Welters can be made from high-
Pressure molding improves the integrity of the structure and reduces the manufacturing cost.
The development of robots also reduces costs.
Like a manipulator, it can easily handle heavy pressure loading, forming and unloading operations. \"I think high-
In 2034, pressure plate forming will become the main force of the industry.
\"Its ability has just begun to be exploited,\" Pfeffer commented . \".
Squeeze to the future, how is the future of static hydraulic extrusion?
In terms of the number of production applications, this is another process that is still in its infancy.
At the same time, it has been thoroughly proven.
By using extremely high pressure, the billet can be squeezed into simple or complex shapes at a high pressure
Fast running without preheating.
Pfeffer said: \"During the extrusion process, you can wrap the substrate with other materials, which makes it low
Wear-Cost of base materials
High temperature resistant
More expensive materials are leather resistant, thus upgrading product performance at low cost.
In the experiment, we even squeezed out the heat.
The exchanger pipes with integral fins eliminate the need to weld them.
\"Another advantage of this process is that it has the potential to maintain very tight tolerances and excellent surface finish.
Any defects that occur when the shape is squeezed will automatically heal as the machining process progresses.
So the shape is crack
Free and perfect, always high performance.
Due to these benefits, Pfeffer predicts that static hydraulic extrusion will almost completely replace traditional extrusion by 2034. to-
7075 aluminum and other forming materials for manufacturing filmwall tubing.
In addition, since this process makes it possible to produce complex shapes economically, we suspect that extruded parts will replace many of the parts that are now produced by other processes.
In hipspoon, based on its ability to do many things better than traditional processes, we believe that HIP will be widely used in the production of high-quality materials and parts in 2034.
The largest single application will be powder thermal equilibrium compaction-
Metal, ceramic and metal ceramics-
Billet for further processing or processing-shape or near-net-shape parts.
By mixing the appropriate powder, it will be possible to optimize the performance of the material in a specific application.
These materials will have dense, uniform and fine
Microstructure of particles that cannot be obtained in conventional single-axis heat-
In the process of casting and forging.
We asked Pfeffer what he thought.
\"The hot isopressing blank will form a shape close to what is expected.
For example, a blank of the best shape can be formed for water extrusion.
Due to the uniform properties of the material, these blanks are easier to squeeze than forged blanks.
Again, HIP can produce forging billet close to the final shape.
Similarly, consistent material performance will help with the forging operation.
In both cases, the minimum amount of raw material is required to produce the final product. \"Difficult-to-
He continued: \"The work material will definitely form the final shape from the hips. As high-
Temperature Ceramics replace metal, this process will be used more and more-
This is the only economic way to produce high production.
Density parts with complex shapes, from ceramics such as nitrogen Silicon and carbide.
\"It seems net-
Shape parts produced by metal powder hot Isopress molding will replace parts produced by traditional casting and forging processes in the next 50 years.
Hiped parts will be more economical to produce, and the performance will always be better, thus increasing the service life.
If a part requires highly oriented performance, it can be hot forged.
If heat treatment is required, this can be done during controlled cooling
After the heat and other static pressure cycle.
In the future, HIP will no longer be confined to exotic materials.
Solid parts with ordinary materials-say aluminum-alloypowders--
Extraordinary performance due to its defects
Increased strength and fatigue resistance will certainly improve the performance of the parts, thus potentially replacing cheap materials of expensive materials.
Aerospace is the future.
If there is an industry in this country that we can rely on from now on, it is our aerospace industry.
We need it for our air defense and aggressive space attacks.
It will come here in 2000, because its products will have a vast market as they are now.
It will use leading
Like today, advanced technology makes these products.
In fact, if you really want to see the future of manufacturing, go to Wilmington, NC, and go to the rotation of the General Electric engine Group-part plant.
It\'s a show, all leadingEdge technology.
This is the best example of GM \"factoryof-the-
The concept of the future, they are marketing to us in manufacturing.
The future is in GE Wilmington.
The 85-year plan is to launch a robot cart, which will be paperless in 86 years.
However, it would look similar if you came back in 2000.
The biggest change has happened.
It will therefore continue to represent the future of manufacturing.
Ralph patzfall, Chief Manufacturing Engineer of the General Electric aircraft engine business group, introduced us to their ideas and plans for the aircraft --
Engine factory in the future.
This is a story: of course, there will be some improvements to the propulsion system currently in use, but in 20 years, today\'s basic jet engines will still be used.
This is a product that can stay.
When you see a competing propulsion system, there\'s nothing out of reach right now, and no other company is not in the propulsion picture right now, and we can imagine that it\'s going to be very competitive.
Now, we are in the rising stage, and our manufacturing load factor is increasing because we are in the defense industry ,(
In addition to Marine, industrial and commercial)
Our orders will increase.
Of course, historically, we have had major military operations.
Engine programs are broken and there are other fluctuations, but the future of our military operations now looks very good.
Our government wants at least two major engine suppliers. -
Pratt & Whitney is undoubtedly a good competitor. -
But not only will we keep them alert, we will beat them!
In terms of manufacturing products, as we move into the future, there will be more and more use of micro-electronics technology and computers, as well as flexible manufacturing, combining parts together, unlike in the past.
We have been talking for a long time and we have a Charter
SOURCE system, where wemanufacture makes rotating parts in one part and makes components in another satellite factory.
Wilmington is a good example.
This is a clone of what we have in Evendale, OH, where we develop the underlying technology.
With the harter-
SOURCE system, you focus on a part series and target all plans, strategies and new technologies on that product line.
In terms of rotating parts, we started using NC technology as early as 1956, which is probably one of the earliest installations in the United States.
This is of great help to us as we use these basic technologies to develop into a centralized computer control system.
This trend will continue in the next 20 years.
In rotor welding, the rotor is combined by friction, and we started using the overall inertia 70 years ago-
Weld the rotor because it is more stable than the bolt connection.
Today, we have several parts, very few, that are welded by electron beam, but almost all of our rotors are welded by inertia.
I don\'t think this will change much in the future.
We are the only company with inertia welding in high production. -
At least the size of our jet. Engine business.
There is a size limit when you go to larger parts, so use electronics-
However, inertia welding can be used in future applications and it will be used.
We have developed this skill to a high degree;
We can [plus-or-minus]0.
About concentricity and [plus-or-minus]0.
020 on the horizontal position of the Web.
This is the real trick to the success of inertia welding.
We are actually the largest small work store.
Many manufacturers in this country.
Our D700 engine could reach 100 engines/month at some point, as we did on J79, but this year we will be in 50 to 60/month
But when you look at wemanufacture\'s total range of engines, there are a lot of engine models.
In some cases, such as building spare parts for J79, the rate is very low, such as 2 months or 3 months. So even at $3-
Billion/year of sales, we are a small-Lottery manufacturers
That\'s why computers really help us and will be the key to our future manufacturing.
You will benefit a lot when you can ignore the family to some extent, but more by grouping through processes and strict geometric factors.
The future trend will be to use group technology to a greater extent, coding components according to these routes, computer process planning, and of course, NC-
Automated machinery for completing tasks.
We will add flexible manufacturing systems to handle specific parts groups with different geometries and different batches.
We will be able to introduce new product lines faster and easier, and be able to make design changes with greater flexibility.
Remember, the machine that does the job doesn\'t know if it\'s military, marine, industrial or commercial --airline part.
The benefits of all areas are the same, and a particular machine may see these three categories in a month.
This is how our plants are placed.
This allows us to shorten the cycle, introduce product improvements faster, and improve the performance of our engines at a lower cost, all of which are direct benefits to our customers, whether it is the US government, airlines, or some petrol pumps.
Historically, when NC first appeared, we were dealing with very unreliable hot ion devices.
Solid in \'60swayer-
The National Electronic Technology came into being and was followed by the micro-electronic technology soon after. the huge improvement in reliability they provided greatly expanded the scope of use of electronic NC.
In order to make full use of computer and micro-electronics technology, we-
Download through the workstation, from computer control with central location control to distributed NC control.
Today, the workstation adds a CRT and alphanumeric keyboard to the picture to connect the operator.
Now we can add modules to the system like a centralized computer
The computer plans the sequence of operations and the process planning of the types of tools required for each workstation.
We have maintenance diagnosis, in some cases, the sensor on the machine will tell you the coolant problem, insufficient lubrication, poor switch, etc;
Or a menu system that guides the operator by analyzing the condition of the machine and automatically generates work orders for the maintenance department in order to dispatch the correct skills to repair the machine.
You can also add a very valuable central quality planning and control system as well as production control, scheduling, inventory control--
All these things can be added to this network to get the best of today\'s technology.